Dialogflow Webhook Response Json

You can generate or re-generate your API key for a particular account and user by logging in to the app and visiting Profile > API Credentials. In this chapter we are gonna create a “StockTracker” bot that will pull a specific ticker data from an external website through RESTFUl APIs. Learn how to add fulfillment to your dialog flow agent! How To Create a DialogFlow Agent: https://youtu. FromResult(sampleJson);" , where sampleJson is a valid JSON in string format. I may still need to tweak and work a little on the response for my purpose. Results and payloads of earlier deliveries are available from the tools menu to the right of each webhook. The former is fired before the event has been published, and Twilio waits for a response before publishing it. Click Save. The value of this header is composed of two parts, separated by an equal sign: the signature algorithm, and the signature itself. Dialogflow rich response classes reference doc. One of the features of Azure Functions is the ability to easily create Webhooks. It will trigger a POST request to the URL you set with the following content in JSON format. Dialogflow sends a webhook request message to your webhook service. Creating Webhooks. The response will be a JSON array with a result for every webhook. Let’s paste our URL we got from Webhook Tester in to the URL field for the webhook. If you proceed the bot communication in the webhook, all request is having Authorization header like following, and you must verify this token each time. また、DialogflowとWebhook間がどうなっているのか不安であれば、以下を見てください。 Dialogflowにログインする ところで、Dialogflowとは? Dialogflowは、ユーザーが何を言おうとしているのかを機械に理解させ、応答を提供することができます。. ### Answer format {#answer-format} The payload returned by webhooks is formatted using JSON. Get the response in JSON format (with the trivia in the text field) Build the response with the format expected by DialogFlow (with the response text in the fulfillmentText field). From your repository in Bitbucket, click the Settings link on the left side, then click the Webhooks link. Click on the three vertical dots on the right and click the ‘Create Key’ option. And there's only one webhook for all the intents. Enable a webhook call for this function. We also saw how it could be integrated with Slack. Every webhook includes an X-Delighted-Webhook-Signature header that can optionally be used to verify that the request did indeed come from us. ai) Configuring opsdroid. I need to parse the object and map the field “Digest” to a question. DialogflowでV2 APIが公式になったということでV2 APIに切り替えたら、Webhookからのレスポンスが文字化けするようになりました。 構成. js webhook for Dialogflow You will now make slight modifications to the Node. Provide faster ways for users to access your Android app via the Assistant. Created for business. Swoogo uses API keys to allow access to the API. For example when an envelope is sent out (via the API or through the Web App) a ‘send-envelope’ event is posted to a webhook which can be setup either via the API or via your Signable account. I have collapsed the response and txt_forecast sections to be able to show the data I want to work with. Your webhook endpoint is free to do anything with the response, as long as it complies with the Responsibilities section below. A webhook endpoint is like a phone number that Stripe calls when certain things happen in your Stripe account. Use the Devices API to access devices integrated with SmartThings Cloud. To use one of these options, click on the switch icon to enable the desired option. These sample scripts illustrate the interaction necessary to obtain and use OAuth 2. Only after the callback response is captured by Logic App, the subsequent actions are triggered. What it really denotes is a back-end server that has a HTTP webhook that receives ‘requests’ for fulfillment and then works out how to respond appropriately. A webhook is a web server endpoint that you create and host. Incoming Request # When DialogFlow detects an intent it will send a complex JSON object to your webhook. Securing webhooks To validate a webhook came from Clearbit we suggest verifying the webhook payloads with the X-Request-Signature header (which we pass with every webhook). In this Dialogflow Tutorial, we go through steps to create Facebook Messenger Bot using Dialogflow Integration. store/cart/created: This webhook will fire whenever a new cart is created either via a storefront shopper adding their first item to the cart or when a new cart being created via an API consumer. It will be used to build the subsequent requests. Fulfillment is deployed as a webhook which is supplied information extracted by Dialogflow’s natural language processing (NLP). Dialogflow Webhook weather implementation in Python. Clicking on the DIAGNOSTIC INFO opens up a popup with details about whole response in JSON format. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. The format also exposes how the data is represented in IFC. A webhook endpoint is like a phone number that Stripe calls when certain things happen in your Stripe account. In the Dialogflow console, follow these steps: Navigate to the Default Fallback Intent. 5, Silverlight, Windows Phone and Windows 8 Store. In order to re-enable the URL, call the update endpoint. Note If Twilio receives a webhook response, it will automatically send a text message containing the webhook response’s body to the phone number that sent the initial message. This service takes geo-city as a param from Dialogflow JSON request and find the weather for the provided city using Open Weather Map and returns a webhook response. Don't enable the webhook (yet). [Don't worry if you don't understand the. The possibilities of using a powerful API such as Dialogflow are endless. AI) to show a list of movies playing today. If the bot code wants to opt out of responding, it can explicitly encode a JSON dictionary that contains response_not_required set to True, so that no response message is sent to the user. It is powered by Google’s advanced NLU engine. Visa Next platform provides a RESTful API infrastructure to create and manage virtual and physical cards, manage card controls (spend restrictions), and allow developers to subscribe to various entity state changes via webhooks. You can click on the chat bubble on right side of the page. Our new name doesn't change the work we're doing with you or our mission. Hi Eric, What do you need to do I'm happy to help. When an intent with fulfillment enabled is matched, Dialogflow will make an HTTP POST request to your webhook with a JSON object containing information about the matched intent. I’ve been playing around with Spark’s webhooks and successfully set up a hook and response on a local server. Twilio returns exceptions in the HTTP response body when something goes wrong. Snipcart will make an HTTP POST request to the URL specified. Considerations for troubleshooting your Event Webhook instance: Start by making sure your web server is returning a 2xx response to our servers. 6 versions. Dialogflow Fulfillment Webhook JSON Sample. During your account set up we can configure a URL to which we will POST payment objects as we determine their status. To send an email notification on action response, what we would be doing is: Create a flow with a HTTP trigger and add an action to send email of the body (which would be the json of the action response) Save the flow to get the URL; Use the URL got in the above step to register a webhook on action response; Send a sample response from the card. Conversely, when your fulfillment sends a response to Dialogflow, the JSON payload of the response must comply with the Dialogflow webhook format. Introduction Welcome to a demonstration on building your first Cisco Spark Webhook. This article discusses about webhooks , webhook Urls and finally how a sample example where webhooks are used. Dialogflow WebhookClient class reference doc. This is intended to be a very basic, beginner's article for getting started with API. The issue is with how to set up a JSON response for an object to be read correctly within DialogFlow. Don't enable the webhook (yet). 以下のjsonに色々入っているのでいじって情報を得. Hello, in WordPress cart I get a “SyntaxError: Unexpected token” in JSON at position 12 “. The Dialogflow webhook format contains all the information of the conversation webhook format along with additional Dialogflow-specific data, such as information about contexts and parameters. JSON is an alternate OData payload format to AtomPub, which significantly reduces the size of the payload and results in lower latency. content_type :json exchange_token_response. This will be the bot the internet user will. Created for business. Crete an endpoint to collect and test an application. I have verified the webhook is triggering properly by selecting the “display” option, but when I try to map the field “Digest”, nothing is populating the field. google JSON object returned to Dialogflow; in V2, the same response to Actions on Google is now in the payload. If the connection is made, you will see a 200 OK response message. Introduction Welcome to a demonstration on building your first Cisco Spark Webhook. Go to Store configurations > Shipping > Webhooks > Configure and enter the required endpoint information. Some inputs are handled directly in Dialogflow and some are passed to a pre-defined external webhook (in this case an HTTPS endpoint running in Google Cloud). JSON cannot represent functions or expressions. Provide faster ways for users to access your Android app via the Assistant. Copy all the JSON in the array next to the "fulfillmentMessages" field coming back in the JSON response. 0, DialogFlow, and AWS. If we receive response codes other than this or if the request times out, it is considered a failure. In November, I gave a talk at Live! 360 on how to create a basic webhook consumer using Azure Functions. matchers import match_dialogflow_action @match_dialogflow_action('mydomain. This automatically creates a Cloud Function for Firebase to use as fulfillment. If the connection is made, you will see a 200 OK response message. Responses and Fulfillment. These classes contain methods corresponding to the TwiML verbs that Twilio understands. Click on the Diagnostics button and copy the JSON. An object is an unordered collection of zero or more name/value pairs. Our mission continues to be that Dialogflow is your end-to-end platform for building great conversational experiences and our team will help you share what you've built with millions of users. It will be the middleware that connects the server and your public page. Dialogflow formats the response in a way that is most advantageous to the user and the device in use, based on how you’ve designed your interface. Weather Bot using OWM deployed in dialogflow. API performance monitoring. And there’s only one webhook for all the intents. Created for business. AzureFunctions. Your service creates a response message by using the provided response message or by creating a modified response message. To explain a bit more, sometimes an interaction between apps online requires immediate response to the event, while solutions for constant and continuous connections are mostly cumbersome, exacting and hard to support. The Click webhook is a way for Postmark to notify your application that a unique recipient clicked a tracked link in your email. In all cases, audit events structure is defined by the API in the audit. I had had to implement the webhook url concept recently and because it was the first time I had heard of webhooks, I had to struggle a lot for understanding what a "webhook" actually meant and also how to create one. Conversational Interfaces Powered by DialogFlow (Api. In the Dialogflow console, follow these steps: Navigate to the Default Fallback Intent. Note If Twilio receives a webhook response, it will automatically send a text message containing the webhook response’s body to the phone number that sent the initial message. 本來不想那麼找就跳出 Google 設定好的結構,開始講實作 webhook 的部份,因為用 webhook 那當然就是玩 serverless 的架構是目前的主流啊! 如何使用Dialogflow建立Chatbot #1 介紹 #2 建立agent #3 對話流程設計 #4 使用fulfilment串API #5 使用fulfilment webhook串API #6 部屬至 Line bot 上. Go to the Fulfillment in Dialogflow console and enable the Webhook configuration. I am making the following assumptions: a. Windows Azure Storage team is excited to announce the release of JSON support for Windows Azure Tables as part of version “2013-08-15”. 0, DialogFlow, and AWS. Click Test Connection. Click SAVE. Webhook data is sent as JSON in the POST request body. Name Type Description; config: object: Key/value pairs to provide settings for this webhook. store/cart/created: This webhook will fire whenever a new cart is created either via a storefront shopper adding their first item to the cart or when a new cart being created via an API consumer. In this Dialogflow Tutorial, we go through steps to create Facebook Messenger Bot using Dialogflow Integration. In this article, I will show you how to create a simple chatbot using Dialogflow. We now are going to call the Incoming Webhook from PowerShell. Webhooks & HTTP. Upon logging into Google Cloud Console, go to the Compute Section > then Cloud Functions. Enter a JSON object in the format required. json(), a useful method. On April 17, 2018 version 2 of the Dialogflow API was made generally available. It supports Dialogflow's fulfillment webhook JSON requests and responses for v1 and v2 agents. new WebhookClient(options) Constructor for WebhookClient object To be used in the Dialogflow fulfillment webhook logic. You can find the link to this project on GitHub here. The JSON serializer in Json. Our new name doesn't change the work we're doing with you or our mission. Prepare the Chatbot Webhook. The configuration file uses the kubeconfig file format. Facebook Intent Tracking Intents are an optional, advanced feature. Chatbot - DialogFlow / API. Swoogo uses API keys to allow access to the API. Introduction. Webhook Event Triggers. Why GitHub? Features → Code review. Securing the Node. Webhook Verification. Our mission continues to be that Dialogflow is your end-to-end platform for building great conversational experiences and our team will help you share what you've built with millions of users. Scroll down to the Text response section and delete the preconfigured responses. You can accept a JSON request dynamically and respond to it with JSON, for example using JObject from Json. The dialogflow integration is designed to be used with the webhook integration of Dialogflow. If Shippo doesn’t receive a 2XX response status code, the webhook POST request will be re-tried 1 time with a 3 second delay between each try. Enable webhook for all domains. 5, Silverlight, Windows Phone and Windows 8 Store. The OpenAPI specification (formerly known as the Swagger Specification) is a powerful definition format to describe RESTful APIs. Dialogflow Agents - Exported JSON Fields When you export an agent from Dialogflow, the generated ZIP file will contain all of the JSON files related to the agent, including intents, Training Phrases per language, and contexts per language. The response message that your fulfillment sends to Dialogflow must be in the. *Note: You can include the response in your fulfillment webhook (index. The value of this header is composed of two parts, separated by an equal sign: the signature algorithm, and the signature itself. This is intended to be a very basic, beginner's article for getting started with API. Our new name doesn't change the work we're doing with you or our mission. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. The end-user sees. Webhook data is sent as JSON in the POST request body. Go to the Fulfillment in Dialogflow console and enable the Webhook configuration. You can use the Response action to respond with a payload (data) to an incoming HTTPS request but only in a logic app that's triggered by an HTTPS request. I don’t receive proper json response on call to localhost/api. Response: The backend system including webhook, entities, intents, user says, etc would produce a set of response. This webhook id is needed later when making some requests to the Account Activity API. Responses and Fulfillment. This is useful for clients that do not handle application/json properly. In this chapter we are gonna create a "StockTracker" bot that will pull a specific ticker data from an external website through RESTFUl APIs. The response will then look like this:. For more information about the underlying JSON definition for this trigger, see the Response action type. Provide the URL of the API that got developed by bot framework and published on Azure. Click on this menu, and click Create Key. Dialogflow expects a response from webhook in particular JSON format which will be parsed and proper output will be displayed to user. If Shippo doesn’t receive a 2XX response status code, the webhook POST request will be re-tried 1 time with a 3 second delay between each try. /webhooks/list. If no response is received within 30 seconds, the call will be considered a failure and will also be reattempted. By this, I mean that you can very easily copy some JSON mentioned in the documentation, paste it into the JSON response editor, and you are good to go. Scroll down to the Text response section and delete the preconfigured responses. By mentioning our webhook URL in the “Fulfillment” tab, we can send all the data collected from a user to our own web application so it can be processed and a response can be generated. To use your webhook, add @webhook-*name_of_the_webhook* in the text of the metric alert you want to trigger the webhook. slide 4: image of console 2. It has very specific rules of syntax, so it is very straightforward to determine that a JSON text is syntactically well formed. In this article, I will show you how to create a simple chatbot using Dialogflow. to/2LdIAh0 Category. Architecturally, the Dialogflow NLU agent sends a POST request to the server webhook, which then gets processed by the server using SDKs. One of the features of Azure Functions is the ability to easily create Webhooks. Incoming Request # When DialogFlow detects an intent it will send a complex JSON object to your webhook. json parser took to parse the JSON text. This will allow you to pass information from a matched request into a web service and get a result from it. The third article of the series will demonstrate how to. Can any one direct me to an article or sample on how to make a call to a Azure Function (Webhook?) from a ASP. With our flow now complete, there is something that we need to do before we create our Webhook. Azure側で処理したいintentの設定から, Enable webhook call for this intent をオン. To receive webhook events, your add-on needs to include the webhook module declaration in its JSON descriptor. Note; If you signed up for a Mandrill account on or after December 1st, 2015, you must add SPF and DKIM records and verify ownership of your sending domains before you can send email through your account. We then know the webhook was delivered successfully. Am surprised these details are not in their official documentation. To enter the URL for webhook, you need to host the app on the server. But while testing, I am still getting empty response. In the Dialogflow console, go to Fulfillment in the left-menu and toggle the button next to Inline Editor to ENABLED. For example when an envelope is sent out (via the API or through the Web App) a ‘send-envelope’ event is posted to a webhook which can be setup either via the API or via your Signable account. Log whenever your webhook is called, and whenever you send a response. Last week we created an AI Chatbot by using Dialogflow (also known as API. Click on the three vertical dots on the right and click the ‘Create Key’ option. to/2LdIAh0 Category. Don't enable the webhook (yet). How to make a Webhook for Dialogflow Fulfillment. Using the source code found here, copy the index. This service takes geo-city as a param from Dialogflow JSON request and find the weather for the provided city using Open Weather Map and returns a webhook response. Dialogflow webhook call failed error Failed to parse Webhook JSON response Version 2 webhook code is now available here https://github. So firstly, what is a Webhook?? Well Wikipedia states a webhook is a method of augmenting or altering the behavior of a web page, or web application, with custom callbacks. Generic Json HTTP Request. Includes getting started guide and complete reference information. Chat API is already used for many projects: sending and reading messages from the CRM-system, recording in the beauty salon, sending details of the vacancy or chat-bot with promotional codes. また、DialogflowとWebhook間がどうなっているのか不安であれば、以下を見てください。 Dialogflowにログインする ところで、Dialogflowとは? Dialogflowは、ユーザーが何を言おうとしているのかを機械に理解させ、応答を提供することができます。. A Go application that feeds of data from Apache Kafka to send alerts via SMS,EMAIL or WebHook delivery channels. Most events — but not all of them — have both a pre-event and a post-event webhook. For security reasons, you probably want to limit requests to those coming from GitHub. This webhook id is needed later when making some requests to the Account Activity API. A webhook in web development is a method of augmenting or altering the behavior of a web application, with custom callbacks. The declaration indicates the add-on relative URL at which it will receive the notification. In this Dialogflow Tutorial, we go through steps to create Facebook Messenger Bot using Dialogflow Integration. Using your. Clicking on the DIAGNOSTIC INFO opens up a popup with details about whole response in JSON format. Skip to content. Let's paste our URL we got from Webhook Tester in to the URL field for the webhook. a JSON output of Api. The email is sent only when the webhook is created by an app from the Shopify App Store or by a private app. If that makes no sense whatsoever, then don't worry too much, it's not that difficult once you get going. json-t – Returns response in json format with text/plain content-type. Webhook Responses. x is in progress, see [#3037137]. Shippo expects your webhook to return a response with a 2XX HTTP status code, indicating that the webhook has been received successfully. Twilio expects your webhook to return TwiML (XML), but you don't need to code the XML by hand. JSON is an alternate OData payload format to AtomPub, which significantly reduces the size of the payload and results in lower latency. It will trigger a POST request to the URL you set with the following content in JSON format. Increasingly, you may also see someone mention a “webhook. (This is helpful to distinguish deliberate non. Let's dig deeper into webhook to understand how it works and what benefits a chatbot developer can leverage using it. I have seen many posts on how to build a chatbot for a wide variety of collaboration platforms such as Slack, Facebook Messenger, HipChat …So I decided to build a chatbot from scratch to production using Angular latest release v5. An Inline Editor is a built-in editor in Dialogflow that you can use to program your Fulfillment. Incident parameters and Custom parameters get passed along with the body of the URL during an HTTP request invocation. The response body will be the return value of the webhook function. If the query was fulfilled by a webhook call, this field is set to the value of the source field returned in the webhook response. Click on the Diagnostics button and copy the JSON. Our API V2 now serves as the default API for all new Dialogflow agents, and all new feature upgrades will only be released for API V2. Hello, in WordPress cart I get a “SyntaxError: Unexpected token” in JSON at position 12 “. Dialogflow (formerly known as Api. A configuration example which uses HTTPS client auth:. If you are new to Dialogflow, you can learn the basics here and implement your bot agents with Dialogflow and integrate them with Zobot. On April 17, 2018 version 2 of the Dialogflow API was made generally available. js file and package. You'll find comprehensive guides and documentation to help you create your first chatbot with SnatchBot as quickly as possible, as well as support if you get stuck. Increasingly, you may also see someone mention a “webhook. Initially you need to create a "when a http request is received" trigger which will create a url end point which you can enter into Survey123 website > your survey> Survey settings > webhooks > add webhook and add in that generated URL as the webhook url ticking on the various options. In order to make our server publically accessible, I will use a tool called ngrok. I have collapsed the response and txt_forecast sections to be able to show the data I want to work with. Sometimes the web is unreliable, and sometimes webhooks might not get through. In order to re-enable the URL, call the update endpoint. Intents are created on the Dialogflow website. JSON can represent two structured types: objects and arrays. The WHINT Webhook JSON Connector is a solution of Whitepaper InterfaceDesign that enables you to push data via an ABAP structure to a Webhook using JSON. Examples of webhook JSON output for transaction checks. We will only notify you of completed and errored payments through the webhook. All webhook messages have the same basic structure, which is called. Solved: Hi Currently Finesse accept content with xml and returns in xml format for http response, do we know does finesse content response can be in JSON format? We are using UCCE 11. Mode Webhook requires a file for HTTP configuration, specify by the --authorization-webhook-config-file=SOME_FILENAME flag. Five new services added. But while testing, I am still getting empty response. JSON is a data interchange format which is based on a safe subset of JavaScript. /webhooks/list. ai) - sample webhook implementation in Python. Using with Google DialogFlow. Post request from Dialogflow Send response to Dialogflow. posted into a room), then the data property will contain the JSON representation for a message resource, as specified in the Messages API documentation. Entities are Dialogflow's mechanism for identifying and extracting useful data from natural language inputs. Elements, attributes, text, comments, character data, processing instructions, namespaces, and the XML declaration are all preserved when converting between the two. For example, if a product is created and then updated multiple times within 10 seconds, only two webhooks are generated. Import a new webhook. Provide faster ways for users to access your Android app via the Assistant. #10 Fulfillment delivers the response (JSON object) from the webhook #11 Dialogflow returns the response to Google Assistant 4/5 5. It basically creates a secure tunnel on your. Our new name doesn't change the work we're doing with you or our mission. The second article will demonstrate how to create a custom chatbot using Microsoft's bot framework and enable the webhooks in Dialogflow and return the response from the custom bot to Dialogflow intents as a fulfillment response. Empty is true if the JSON object has no key:value pairs, false if there is at least 1 pair. AI) Webooks, letting your Dialogflow agents talk with your website, respond to Intents request and fill slots. slide 4: image of console 2. content_type :json exchange_token_response. Failed to load latest commit information. This is the standard format of response for Dialogflow, i. Webhooks allow an application to be notified of changes. The Webhook is the Web's way to integrate completely different systems in semi-real time. Intents convert a number of user expressions or patterns into an action. There are a couple of new features following this change. AI) in an Ionic application. json parser took to parse the JSON text. We now are going to call the Incoming Webhook from PowerShell. This article will describe how to send an image using Dialogflow. Introduction. Get the list of all webhooks defined on the account. Warning: V1 of Dialogflow's API will be shut down on October 23, 2019. Conversely, when your fulfillment. Dialogflow Webhook weather implementation in Python. This mechanism is useful for services that are not directly responsible for making an API request, but still need to know the response from that request. Of course, select JSON!. "Dialogflow API Client" role should be chosen while creating the service account. The Alexa Interaction Model is stored in this folder. See HERE for example webhook JSON payloads. Visa Next platform provides a RESTful API infrastructure to create and manage virtual and physical cards, manage card controls (spend restrictions), and allow developers to subscribe to various entity state changes via webhooks. This callback occurs after a person played a round of Instant Games. Snipcart will make an HTTP POST request to the URL specified. Includes getting started guide and complete reference information. Just recently on October 10th, Google announced a change in name of API. Securing the Node. A webhook endpoint is like a phone number that Stripe calls when certain things happen in your Stripe account. Prepare the Chatbot Webhook. You can find the entire source code of the application on this GitHub repository. posted into a room), then the data property will contain the JSON representation for a message resource, as specified in the Messages API documentation. Understanding JSON format is very useful when you are building webhook for Dialogflow to handle responses for the intent. Update a database record, send an email, kick off some custom analysis, or anything else you can. Connect facebook page with Dialogflow agent. txt – Returns response with http headers and json data inline with text/plain content-type. Incoming Webhooks are a simple way to post messages from external sources into Slack. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: