Python Memory Leak

Tracemalloc module was integrated as a built-in module starting from Python 3. In this case, the only work around might be restarting the Jupyter. A memory leak may also happen when an object is stored in memory but cannot be accessed by the running code. The data wasn't increasing so there must have been some memory leak. In order to find these leaks, the memory pools must be disabled. bart4282819 reported Jul 10, 2018 at 07:01 AM. Python allocates memory transparently, manages objects using a reference count system, and frees memory when an object's reference count falls to zero. fix memory leak in event dispatch [DONE] Rewrite event subsystem [IN PROGRESS] PythonCardNewEventSubsystem. Below are some memory leaks example encountered by me. Hey Everyone, I am having a hard time pinning down what appears to be a memory leak. AIX tries to use the maximum amount of free memory for file caching. The terms "memory leak" and ". If you read part 1 of this series, you know that my crawler was plagued by several memory leaks. 3 array memory leak. using multiprocessing. Diagnosing Memory Leaks in Matplotlib. mimikatz mimikatz is a tool that makes some "experiments" with Windows security. To solve the memory leak problem , the following content is from stackoverflow. Menu Tracking Down a Freaky Python Memory Leak 06 December 2016 on memory leak, perfmon, windows, lxml, objgraph, vmmap, umdh, pycharm, python "I thought that memory leaks were impossible in Python?", I said to myself, staring incredulously at my screen. From the main menu, select Help | Change Memory Settings. tracemalloc — Trace memory allocations¶ The tracemalloc module is a debug tool to trace memory blocks allocated by Python. Python allocates memory transparently, manages objects using a reference count system, and frees memory when an object’s reference count falls to zero. When I was doing memory leak hunting in M2Crypto, I got some help from pje (how to use weakref). The easiest way to profile a single method or function is the open source memory-profiler package. These type of bugs are called memory leak and often occur in server processes running for a long time. Several large Django applications that I've worked on ended up with memory leaks at some point. If the memory leak is still there then it''s real. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. When you load a whole chrom from a huge file into memory, it is considered as a big memory block and is reversed for Python to use it later. The memory will be released when the python script is finished. My guess is that you create a new QDialog object each time the slot executes. Note that this only finds leaks of your objects. Few months ago, I had to debug a memory leak in Node. My script generates about 400 objects. is actually Python 2. The default Python implementation, CPython, is actually written in the C programming language. My intent for this post is to be a simple guide for. The most common way to force an SQLite database to exist purely in memory is to open the database using the special filename ":memory:". Python allocates memory transparently, manages objects using a reference count system, and frees memory when an object’s reference count falls to zero. This is the home page for Guppy-PE , a programming environment providing object and heap memory sizing, profiling and analysis. Overview of memory leak in Python Memory leak is a gradual increase in the physical RAM usage of a process. A memory leak is one of the worst types of issues you can have. Fixed compatibility with Python 3. com offers free software downloads for Windows, Mac, iOS and Android computers and mobile devices. This proposal is focused on enabling the fundamental capability of multiple isolated interpreters in the same Python process. For many trivial applications or applications with a very short application lifetime the odd memory leak is often not of significant importance and will go un-noticed. As discussed on IRC and initially reported to gevent, if a pure-Python object subclasses a cpyext object that has a non trivial tp_dealloc (e. Try using xrange instead of range. The only thing I see in RAMMap is a ton of "Page pooled" with no file or process name for most of. The only major problem I've seen with the code is that it has a substantial memory leak that I just can't seem to track down. C++ Memory Validator works with applications and services, both native and mixed-mode. A memory leak happens when a piece (or pieces) of memory that was already allotted by a programmer is not legitimately deallocated by the programmer. The MemoryOverview shows two hard reference paths keeping byte[] instances alive (blue and green). io-nvidia-caffe-18. A memory (or resource) leak occurs when the program loses the ability to free the memory it consumes. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. finally block, another helpful idiom is to tie its lifetime to a Python object to leverage the Python runtime's memory management, e. This is a new area for Python so there is relative uncertainly about the best tools to provide as companions to subinterpreters. We wrote some new code in the form of celery tasks that we expected to run for up to five minutes, and use a few hundred megabytes of memory. This should give you some clues as to where the leak is happening. An OS-specific virtual memory manager carves out a chunk of memory for the Python process. Another kind of leaks is caused by objects that are put into gc. Report Memory Leaks on Shutdown Memory leak detecting and reporting are set to false by default. Rewriting the component to use urllib from the Python standard library eliminated the memory leak. Even if they are less likely to happen in Python, there are some bug reports for Jupyter. A memory-mapped file object behaves like both strings and like file objects. import gc gc. bmp files) consumes lots of memory, you will see that eventually the application crashes. QueryFrame I have. I've also seen the same behavior on wx 4. It's because the Python Garbage Collector cannot release the memory used by objects if they still have a reference. Usually there are three scenarios: some low level C library is leaking; your Python code have global lists or dicts that grow over time, and you forgot to remove the objects after use. Folks -=20 I have a situation that I have seen in numerous databases that has been confirmed by other developers in our company. I commit the insertions after parsing each file and expect the memory usage to decrease after the committing since the content of the file will not be used in the future. Additionally, tools are provided which allow to locate the source of not released objects. A search of the mailing list shows a thread started by Ralf Gommers <[hidden email]> about 2009-07-01 that seems to cover a very similar issue. Here are the situations where the memory leak will happen in your python code. When creating extensions to Python using C you must be very careful with your reference counting or you will get a memory leak. This is a great way for your server to eventually crash. May your code be leak free in. You jumped to "memory leak in Python". Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. Understanding memory leaks and crashes in C++ - posted in C/C++ Tutorials: One innocent memory leak or a little stack corruption might keep you busy debugging for week. Thus, if code takes memory from the pool without returning it, the leak detection will not see this because all of the pool memory is returned to the OS at the end. I notice if I leave a script running for a couple of days in the python ide that the pi slowly runs out of memory, yet the same script running not in the. 5 PyLocale_strxfrm Function Remote Information Leak Vulnerability Exploiting this issue allows remote attackers to read portions of memory. ] using QuickOPC in Python and [. I thought Python had garbage collection? Is there something that arcPy is doing?. Memory management for your Python code is handled by the Python application. I can confirm memory leaks in Python programs can be hard to find and fix. memory-tools. https://www. Recently I noticed a Python service on our embedded device was leaking memory. The problem is fixed for Python versions 2. exe is increasing its memory usage every few seconds, which makes me believe there is a memory leak somewhere. To solve the memory leak problem , the following content is from stackoverflow. I'm using appsink to receive raw video frame from a decodebin. Thus we minimize the functionality we add in the proposal as much as possible. Also, note that the garbage collection module actually can have debug flags set. Description: I have 100 CSV files with 50000 rows in each file and I want to insert them into MySQL using Python 3. The string shows memory leak over an int because a string internally allocates memory dynamically on the heap. Working Around Memory Leaks in Your Django Application 2019-09-19. read that will in any way leak memory. We discovered that the memory leak was related to our use of requests, a. NET Framework Also discuss all the other Microsoft libraries that are built on or extend the. 3 due to how it runs Python tools. Still another kind is not an actual. It then presents a real example of a Python application that leaked memory and how these tools were used to track down the leak. 04-py2:mem_leak 2). Even with all the instructions on how to suppress some errors, Valgrind. As Christian Heimes describes it here, Python uses its own memory allocator for small objects (< 257 bytes). There is a memory leak in PL/Python when taking slices of results. For starters a memory leak is an application failing to appropriatly use and release memory at the appropriate (or intended) times within the program. The line-by-line memory usage mode is used much in the same way of the line_profiler: first decorate the function you would like to profile with @profile and then run the script with a special script (in this case with specific arguments to the Python interpreter). Memory leak explained easily. How memory leaks happen, and what to do about them. This will occur on Friday, July 24 around 9AM. Memory include RAM and swap. 5+ on Windows (thanks @fgregg); CRFSuite C++ library is updated to latest version, this fixes several memory leaks and improves performance (thanks @fgregg); extension is rebuilt with Cython 0. How does Python manage memory? Memory management in Python involves a private heap containing all Pythonobjects. I commit the insertions after parsing each file and expect the memory usage to decrease after the committing since the content of the file will not be used in the future. These bugs are often considered to be hard to find. Additionally, tools are provided which allow to locate the source of not released objects. We have just been notified of a major memory leak with OpenMPI v1. The usage of RAM can be seen by some values of VIRT, RES that are virtual memory usage and physical memory usage respectively. tracemalloc, a powerful memory tracking tool in the Python standard library, made it possible to quickly diagnose and fix the leak. msg91334 -. Even if they are less likely to happen in Python, there are some bug reports for Jupyter. 2(October 21,2019) Fix sessions remaining open even if they are disposed manually. They both go through python classes to a HashMap. For a long time it was cheaper to buy the developers an extra gig of RAM than to spend time hunting down a possible memory leak, but finally curiosity overcame me and I started investigating. Memory leak with fetchmany on mysql-connector-python==8. --Robert Kern "I have come to believe that the whole world is an. Tutorial - Track Down Memory Leaks The memory leak is gone. Report Memory Leaks on Shutdown Memory leak detecting and reporting are set to false by default. Thus we minimize the functionality we add in the proposal as much as possible. Memory leak with PL/Python trigger Changed name to PL/Python Trigger Memory Leak fix: 2015-10-22 01:13:29: Haribabu Kommi (haribabu) Changed authors to Haribabu. Have a look at this article: Tracing python memory leaks. fix memory leak in event dispatch [DONE] Rewrite event subsystem [IN PROGRESS] PythonCardNewEventSubsystem. However, as I described in my post, accumulating Python objects in memory can really look like a memory leak, so you need to rule it out. I do not actually know whether the memory leak has anything to do with this buffered input but it's certainly one of the biggest memory hogs in the model. The program has gotten to a fairly advanced stage but I've run into what appears to be a major memory leak. Tutorial - Track Down Memory Leaks The memory leak is gone. I ended up just adding debug statements to the hot loop to see which step caused the memory usage to jump. The growth of the application memory footprint over time may indicate a memory leak. Leaking Bad. Below are some memory leaks example encountered by me. In this article we will discuss what is Memory Leak C++ and why its harmful for applications. Python's memory allocation and deallocation method is automatic. For many trivial applications or applications with a very short application lifetime the odd memory leak is often not of significant importance and will go un-noticed. It creates a system-wide memory leak on Linux/Unix (present until the next reboot), unless the last statement in the target of mp. Calling `close` on the `MongoClient` object does not release the memory. Looking at memory usage showed that the reflector's memory footprint increased monotonically and continuously, indicating a memory leak. Stop tracing Python memory allocations: uninstall hooks on Python memory allocators. A few of our power users reported that long-running backtests would sometimes run out of memory. fix memory leak in event dispatch [DONE] Rewrite event subsystem [IN PROGRESS] PythonCardNewEventSubsystem. In Python or Java, a memory leak is created when you accidentally leave a reference to some massive data structure hanging around, so the entire thing cannot be freed. Available In: 1. The only difference is that range returns a Python list object and xrange returns an xrange object. as i am testing on device, to run python file. If neither of these things is done you have a memory leak in just like a malloc() without a corresponding free(). Inexperienced programmers often think that Java’s automatic garbage collection completely frees them from worrying about memory management. Applications increasing their memory usage can cause serious issue. When I test Python calls to. Introduction to Memory Leaks In Java Apps. generalize resourceEditor component handling [PARTLY DONE] generalize all component-specific handling if possible, so the needed info comes from the component spec. Meaning? IT’S A LEAK!! Starting with heap dump: So we had this uWSGI worker with high memory utilization. This is called a memory leak. ] may have found a small memory leak that I wanted to get your input on. Leaks like this are still possible, but usually only because an older Python extension module (implementing a container type) is used, one that doesn't adhere to the new GC API. 8, unless otherwise noted. Not releasing memory back to the operating system is the definition of a memory leak and will cause the process to crash after the leak has used all available memory. js applications are like ticking time bombs that, if left unchecked in production environments, can result in devastating outcomes. Tuesday, September 18th, 2007. Memory leakage occurs in C++ when programmers allocates memory by using new keyword and forgets to deallocate the memory by using delete() function or delete[] operator. It's well-known to extract p. Rinse and repeat for a thousand different data sets. A few of our power users reported that long-running backtests would sometimes run out of memory. Even with this gc collection, memory was still gradually increasing with traffic. Allocate memory by new keyword and deallocate memory by delete keyword and write all code between them. Crashes and memory leaks happen with everyone whether you are a naive or an expert C++ programmer. Another area where memory leaks might be a problem is when the program calls for a lot of temporary objects that use up large amounts of memory. The following code will eat my entire memory eventually. While garbage collection works most of the times and never becomes an issue, when there is a memory leak in the code, we have no choice but to dig deeper to uncover it. It is often important to check memory usage and memory used per process on servers so that resources do not fall short and users are able to access the server. read() call of the GLOBAL variable "spi" is assigning new memory every time it is called. When it runs a tool, it does not create a brand-new Python interpreter, run the tool, and deallocate the interpeter. The problem you mentioned is not a problem of the code. Try to add that handler as a pointer, new it on begin and delete in on the end. My guess is that you create a new QDialog object each time the slot executes. Hi all, I trying to write a Python Windows Memory Scanner, that finds the addresses of a specific value. The delete operator should be used to free a single. The code is supposed to fetch 215647 lines from the public. Posted on September 8, 2015 July 12, 2017 Author Yasoob Categories python Tags argparse, click, docopt, memory leaks, php, php vs python, python, rest api, sql alchemy 1 Comment on Nice tutorials I bumped into recently. As discussed on IRC and initially reported to gevent, if a pure-Python object subclasses a cpyext object that has a non trivial tp_dealloc (e. Lesson learned. Tutorial - Track Down Memory Leaks The memory leak is gone. Memory leaks in Python cannot be analyzed with traditional tools because Python uses reference counters. These are details on what we (Dave, Peter, and I, mostly them) did to find and fix the problem. The following code will eat my entire memory eventually. The CPU usage is minimal, but the available physical memory goes down to about. The data wasn’t increasing so there must have been some memory leak. If reading/writing to normal tags, there is no upward slope in memory. To check the memory status, following command can be used. 0, I think) now includes a cyclical-reference garbage collector. 6 msw (phoenix) wxWidgets 3. It would be worthwhile trying the workflow using python 3. Managing memory leaks in Python can be a tough job, but luckily there are tools like heapy for debugging memory leaks. as i am testing on device, to run python file. How To Detect & Fix Memory Leaks Using LeakCanary In Android If you have a basic understanding on how memory leak occurs, you should be able to pinpoint the. The official home of the Python Programming Language. There is no memory leak in python. However it does not work here. Hunting memory leaks in Python At work the functional test suite of our application used up quite a lot of RAM (over 500 megs). In the worst case, the kernel can kill the process if it consumes too much memory. A situation in which a program, an application or a part of the operating system does not return the memory allocated for temporary use though the memory is no longer in use. The official home of the Python Programming Language. After every few iterations we can clearly see the memory usage increase. bart4282819 reported Jul 10, 2018 at 07:01 AM. The complete code is at the bottom, and I'll explain how it works. exe process using up ALL the memory. AIX tries to use the maximum amount of free memory for file caching. I know Python has automatic garbage collection, although I don't understand much of how it works. stop ¶ Stop tracing Python memory allocations: uninstall hooks on Python memory allocators. 12: and eats memory until the OS kills it. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. 3 array memory leak. I can confirm memory leaks in Python programs can be hard to find and fix. Potential memory leak when converting wide char to python string Tag: python , python-2. Meaning? IT'S A LEAK!! Starting with heap dump: So we had this uWSGI worker with high memory utilization. https://www. I will present tools specific to Python to help you to localize. After a frustrating time trying to find a memory leak in my Python code with guppy / heappy hpy, I tried objgraph and, wow, it makes it so easy!. Lesson learned. i need help to indentify it. Seems like a lot of people are having trouble understanding what a memory leak is, the fact is that it's more then one thing which is why it's confusing. Some objects can hold other objects, such as lists, tuples, dicts, classes, etc. iBasskung 24,018,349 views. Python Forums on Bytes. Python is garbage-collected, and a memory leak in Python doesn't have the same impact a memory leak in C++ might. Hack The Virtual Memory, Chapter 1: Python bytes For this second chapter, we’ll do almost the same thing as for chapter 0: C strings & /proc, but instead we’ll access the virtual memory of a running Python 3 script. However, as I described in my post, accumulating Python objects in memory can really look like a memory leak, so you need to rule it out. Also clears all previously collected traces of memory blocks allocated by Python. I've added Python script support to my wxWidgets app (C++, not wxPython) so that users can run. Unlike normal string objects, however, these are mutable. Still another kind is not an actual. Memory include RAM and swap. The idea was to pick an object in memory that shouldn’t be there and then see what references are keeping it alive. It's the memory usage strategy of Python. g start monitoring and then execute a few commands, and final stop the monitoring and see how much memory that have been used during the period. May your code be leak free in. This is a program that uses loads of memory, until the computer runs out and has to do some swapping to save itself from running out. Try to add that handler as a pointer, new it on begin and delete in on the end. The memory will be released when the python script is finished. The code is well documented in obmalloc. The default Python implementation, CPython, is actually written in the C programming language. However, there are other cases where the memory leaks could come from other (more or less obscure) objects. I am experiencing memory leakage when using Python and COM. This was first discussed in pgsql-general:. The low-level resource leak is simply the leak of an OS-level resource – such as file descriptors, open connections, etc. The tracemalloc. Memory issues are important because they are often perceivable by users. To debug a leaking program call gc. The program has gotten to a fairly advanced stage but I've run into what appears to be a major memory leak. Additionally, this post was merely an excuse to explore all those concepts and tools that I didn't know much about (Python memory management, Python memory leaks, Python's internals, obgraph, etc. This article describes memory management in Python 3. Calling `close` on the `MongoClient` object does not release the memory. Hi all, I have recently written a python script which involves some heavy computation. These resources can also leak, just like memory does. This is a great way for your server to eventually crash. bart4282819 reported Jul 10, 2018 at 07:01 AM. grid gtk HTML htmlarea hyperlink i18n image img input inspector json layout linux macos msgbox native plaintext popup print printing python. An OS-specific virtual memory manager carves out a chunk of memory for the Python process. 12: and eats memory until the OS kills it. Menu Tracking Down a Freaky Python Memory Leak 06 December 2016 on memory leak, perfmon, windows, lxml, objgraph, vmmap, umdh, pycharm, python "I thought that memory leaks were impossible in Python?", I said to myself, staring incredulously at my screen. In the worst case, the kernel can kill the process if it consumes too much memory. I just did a test on python2, found there is still a memory leak. In theory, it’s swell. 4) and see if that works or improves things. Some of the features described here may not be available in earlier versions of Python. Also, note that the garbage collection module actually can have debug flags set. Potential memory leak when converting wide char to python string Tag: python , python-2. Meaning? IT'S A LEAK!! Starting with heap dump: So we had this uWSGI worker with high memory utilization. yogeshahiray via redhat-l wrote:. Additionally, look at this code by Gnibbler for determining the types of objects that have been created after a call. - not calling the finalizer in a timely manner - never calling the finalizer and creating a memory leak through gc. Hover over the CPU and memory graphs and you'll see a tooltip that shows the application's private memory and percentage of CPU consumption at any point in time:. If I run the same script twice, I notice the object count remains the same, but the memory allocated does increase substantially. Everything in Python is an object. di*****@gmail. Any persistent ones would be Arc* associated. I've described some tips to reduce memory consumption in python processes. 31 came along and the effect seems to be minimized FOR running suites and loading python libraries. This will occur on Friday, July 24 around 9AM. and therefore the memory is reclaimed as expected from a Python. For many trivial applications or applications with a very short application lifetime the odd memory leak is often not of significant importance and will go un-noticed. But I would like to monitor the memory usage over a period of time. Production servers normally need to run with the least down time. please provide more info. A memory leak is one of the worst types of issues you can have. To find memory leaks and eliminate them, you need the proper memory leak tools. iBasskung 24,018,349 views. Python Forums on Bytes. Overview of memory leak in Python Memory leak is a gradual increase in the physical RAM usage of a process. This post first describes the tools used to identify the source of a memory leak. Technically, memory leakage is ever-increasing usage of memory by any application. Allocating Memory Dynamically. Hover over the CPU and memory graphs and you'll see a tooltip that shows the application's private memory and percentage of CPU consumption at any point in time:. The Default Python Implementation. The management of this private heap is ensured internally by the Python memory manager. I discovered two large memory leaks caused by the logging package when it is used by "in process" tools under ArcGIS 9. Otherwise, they won't be reclaimed until the python process exits. You can use it by putting the @profile decorator around any function or method and running python -m memory_profiler myscript. 8, unless otherwise noted. no memory leak, and best performance! and therefore the memory. is actually Python 2. This is very difficult to describe, but if someone else has experienced this, and/or has a solution, it would be reat to hear from you. An alternate way is to create the object once, and in the slot you can check if the object is created or not (use the QDialog* as a member and initialize it to 0 in the mainwindow constructor) and if the pointer == 0 create an object, initialize the pointer and show the QDialog, else just show the dialog. This post first describes the tools used to identify the source of a memory leak. take_snapshot ¶. It’s not so easy for a Python application to leak memory. While Matt works. Memory unsafety and memory leaks are arguably the two categories of bugs that have received the most attention for prevention and mitigation. I can confirm memory leaks in Python programs can be hard to find and fix. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. Usually there are three scenarios: some low level C library is leaking; your Python code have global lists or dicts that grow over time, and you forgot to remove the objects after use. 0 with the FuncAnimation for streaming serial data to a figure where it is continously updated. I also used the gc to catch some bugs, but many bugs were in the C layer for which I needed Valgrind. Red Hat Security Advisory 2019-2196-01 - The zziplib is a lightweight library to easily extract data from zip files. If the leak points to inside the boost. python guys. Overview of memory leak in Python Memory leak is a gradual increase in the physical RAM usage of a process. The code is pretty large (655 lines), but a lot of it is comments & blank lines for readability. These leaks aren't "leaks" in the classical sense, because the memory is still referred to from somewhere, and may even eventually be freed (if the program makes it that far without running out of memory). 5+ on Windows (thanks @fgregg); CRFSuite C++ library is updated to latest version, this fixes several memory leaks and improves performance (thanks @fgregg); extension is rebuilt with Cython 0. There is a memory leak in PL/Python when taking slices of results. Subject: Potential Memory Leak? Hi Z. We have just been notified of a major memory leak with OpenMPI v1. Still another kind is not an actual. I can't see anything in sock_recv or _fileobject. After a while, this can eat away most of the system resources if the Python session is not terminated. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: